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Plasma glucose concentration Plasma glucose concentration is the most important factor affecting insulin secretion. After oral or intravenous glucose, insulin release is a two-phase reaction. In the early rapid phase, insulin in the portal vein reached the highest value within 2 minutes, and then decreased rapidly; the delayed phase was delayed, and the plasma insulin level gradually increased after 10 minutes, which lasted for more than 1 hour. The early rapid phase shows that glucose promotes the release of stored insulin, delaying the slow phase of insulin synthesis and proinsulin-transformed insulin.
Eating foods containing more protein After eating foods containing more protein, the amino acid concentration in the blood increases, and insulin secretion also increases. Arginine, lysine, leucine and phenylalanine have strong effects on insulin secretion.
Increased gastrointestinal hormones after meals can increase insulin secretion after meals such as gastrin, secretin, gastrin, and intestinal vasoactive peptides stimulate insulin secretion.
Autonomic nerve function promotes insulin secretion when vagus nerve is excited; insulin secretion is inhibited when sympathetic nerve is excited.